Wednesday, May 22, 2019
17:00 – 19:00 | 3826182
Assessing the contribution of Tara Bandu community conservation practices in Timor-Leste, Southeast Asia
Anthony Charles1; Cintia Gillam1; Tony.Charles@smu.ca
1St. Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada;
Community-scale environmental conservation initiatives could include traditional management practices. In Timor-Leste, tara bandu is the customary law that manages the relationship between humans and between humans and natural resources. Local communities use traditional conservation practices through tara bandu rules to implement hunting, fishing, and harvesting closures in certain areas. The purpose of this research is to investigate how the government natural resource management connects with tara bandu practices by recognizing the role of traditional conservation practices, and the outcomes of the relationship between government and coastal communities. Some of these outcomes will be measured by indicators of governance, and ecological and human community wellbeing. This research will draw learnings for traditional conservation analysis centering on (a) How tara bandu practices lead to marine and coastal conservation in three Timorese communities on Atauro Island, (b) how tara bandu practices connect with governmental science and management, and (c) the possible applications of the indicators developed in this research to decision-making and management.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3582954
Bioeconomic assessment of green abalone, Haliotis fulgens (Philippi 1845), production in a model farm in Baja California Sur, Mexico
Anayatzin Naranjo-Tamayo1; Marcelo Araneda-Padilla2; Germán Ponce-Díaz1; Luis César Almendárez-Hernandez1; Francisco Javier Vergara-Solana3; email@example.com
1Instituto Politécnico Nacional-CICIMAR, La Paz, Baja California Sur, México; 2Benchmark Genetics Chile, Ruta 7 Carretera Austral Km. 35, Chaicas, Puerto Montt, Chile; 3IPN-CICIMAR;
In the Baja California Peninsula Green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) fishery is currently collapsed. Commercial catches dropped from 6,000 metric tons in 1976, to less than 500 in 2016. This situation has triggered an unprecedented effort for farming this species in the fattening phase. However, the economic risk and profitability of such practices are unknown. This study aims to assess the bioeconomic feasibility of the green abalone production at the fattening phase in a model farm at La Bocana, Baja California Sur, Mexico. This model is composed of four submodels, the biological one referring to the biological parameters of the organism, the environmental submodel comprises the variability of the sea surface temperature (SST), and the technological submodel involves the farm management and finally the economic submodel, referring to all economic aspects of the operation. The results of the bioeconomic model considering three stocking schedules (cold season, mid-season and warm season), allowed to estimate the breakeven and the optimum time to harvest. The best stocking dates are in the mid-season, which presented positive values at day 314 with an optimal harvest time of 725 days and a net operating present value (opNPV) of US$143,495 and a breakeven of 12,602 kg (n= 263,096). The sensitivity analysis indicated that the most sensitive parameters were: growth rate (k), mortality1 (z1), mortality2 (z2), sale price (P), food cost (Cf) and seed cost (Sc). On the other hand, the risk analysis confirmed that the epoch most likely to generate positive cash flows was the mid-season, with a higher average opNPV (F=37.05, p<0.001) comparatively with the other stocking dates. These results conclude that the intensive production of green abalone in the fattening phase, it is operationally profitable in the Baja California Peninsula.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3825629
Coastal communities, conservation and livelihoods
Anthony Charles1; Libby Dean2; Robynique Maynard2; Shannon Hicks2; firstname.lastname@example.org
1Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; 2Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada;
The Community Conservation Research Network (CCRN) is a global research program, which for the past 7 years has involved over 60 researchers, Indigenous organizations and community bodies around the world in studying (a) coastal communities involved in environmental conservation sustaining livelihoods, and (b) governmental policy support for those communities [www.CommunityConservation.Net]. The CCRN has carried out a large number of case studies to better understand the links of Communities, Conservation and Livelihoods, and the 2-way connection between the well-being of coastal communities and the health of local ecosystems. This presentation synthesizes these studies to demonstrate (1) how environmental conservation supports the livelihoods of local and indigenous people, and contributes to the sustainability of local, regional and national economies, (2) how the success of local conservation initiatives is enhanced when supported by governmental policy, and when community knowledge is embraced, and (3) how adequate attention to the need for sustainable livelihoods in communities is an essential ingredient for successful environmental conservation and stewardship. Further, at a larger scale, conservation and governance are likely to be improved through active, meaningful engagement of local communities and indigenous rights-holders in resource decision-making and monitoring.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3727146
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of the largest seafood suppliers in the wild capture fisheries sector: From vision to action
Helen Packer1; email@example.com
1Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada;
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the seafood industry is on the rise. Because of increasing public awareness and NGO campaigns, seafood buyers such as wholesalers, brand owners, retailers and hotel and restaurant chains have made various commitments to improve the sustainability of their wild seafood sourcing. As part of this effort, large seafood companies whether involved in fishing, processing and/or importing have developed their own CSR programs in order to meet customer sourcing requirements. Our study reviewed the CSR practices, including their sustainability and business strategy, of the 25 largest seafood companies (by revenue) that deal with wild seafood products. Our results analysed what CSR issues these companies claim to address, how companies claim to implement CSR, and what kind of CSR framework companies have in place. We found companies implement CSR through various activities from supply chain control, to NGO partnerships and government engagement, however very few companies make specific, measurable and timeboud commitments to any of the issues mentioned (between 0-36%). We review the strengths and limitations of each activity specifically, and CSR more generally, as an approach for governing the social and environmental aspects of wild seafood production.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3580157
Economic valuation of sportfishing in the surroundings of Cerralvo Island, Baja California Sur, Mexico, through the travel cost method
Marian Rodríguez-Fuentes1; Luis Cesar Almendarez-Hernández1; Marco Antonio Almendarez-Hernández2; Francisco Javier Vergara-Solana1; German Ponce-Díaz1; firstname.lastname@example.org
1IPN-CICIMAR, La Paz BCS, Mexico; 2CIBNOR, La Paz BCS, Mexico;
There is a perception that deep sea Sportfishing (SF) is a sustainable economic activity. Coupled with the fact that in some tourist sites it is a priority due to its cultural importance and the economic impact it generates. One of these sites is Los Cabos in Baja California Sur, Mexico, being a global reference in SF. In this vein, in recent years a significant number of artisanal fishers, from the communities surrounding Cerralvo Island located 215 km from Los Cabos and 57 km from the city of La Paz have opted to offer tourist services focused on the sports-recreational fishing. The SF has generated unevaluated economic activity in the area. So it is vital that stakeholders know this value to improve their decision making. Therefore, this research aimed to make a valuation of the recreation service and the factors that influence the demand of the SF in Cerralvo Island and surrounding areas, through the indirect Travel Cost Method (TCM). For this, 275 surveys were carried out every 15 days, from June 2016 until June 2017 at the boat ramps in nearby towns. The estimated consumer surplus (EC) is USD 1,886 per visitor. Approximately there are 28,864 sport-recreational annual fishing trips, so the total annual surplus is USD 54,437,504.00. The EC outperforms other national sites and is 140% higher than the highest valuation made for Los Cabos, presumably derived from the differences in costs (v gr., fishing charter, hotel, food). These values suggest that there is an opportunity for the development of this activity in the study area.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3843321
Exploring the alignment of human health and environmental health recommendations for fish and seafood Consumption: A Prospective Research Project
Holly Amos1; Megan Bailey1; -
1Marine Affairs Program, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada;
The global population is expected to reach 9.8 billion by 2050, and with this climbing population comes the challenge of feeding people around the world. Sustainable food systems have been suggested as a tool to produce sufficient quality and quantity of food to achieve this. Fish and seafood are included in many health recommendations for several reasons, however fisheries around the world are overfished and overfishing continues. This prospective project will use an in-depth literature review to explore four areas of interests related to aligning human health and environmental health recommendations in Canada for fish and seafood intake; Canadian human health recommendations and environmental health recommendations for fish and seafood intake, the provenance of Canadas fish and seafood supply, and the affordability of species available. A comparative analysis will be used to determine whether there are species that satisfy criteria for each area of interest and whether any species satisfy multiple areas of interest. Ideally, a species may satisfy criteria for all areas of interest and thereby support human and environmental health concurrently. Anticipated results suggest little alignment of environmental health and human health recommendations and underrealized opportunities for considering areas of interest together. Through considering the alignment of human and environmental health we can move towards recommendations that support the integration of multiple objectives to develop policies and incentives that reflect the complex, interconnected nature of human and environmental health.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3843816
Fish, humans & indicators: which one? An allocation regime based on socio-economic indicators
Hussain Sinan1; Hussain.email@example.com
1Marine Affairs Program, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada;
Failure of fisheries management is often expressed in terms of biological overuse, loss of economic productivity, costly management, over capitalisation, negative consequences on ecosystems and associated habitats, and inequitable processes and outcomes. Various disciplines have different approaches to tackle these issues in fisheries management, but one key denominator in all these fields, i.e. academic, policy and public domain, which remains out of reach is the ability to connect fundamental human social interactions or behaviour to conservation and management outcomes. After all, fisheries management is not at all about managing fish, but it is about managing humans and their interactions. Indicators are one tool that can be employed to try to link social and ecological systems. In this study, 336 socio-economic indicators that are currently in use by organizations, NGOs and fisheries managers in various countries are synthesized. These socio-economic indicators can and do serve different purposes, scenarios and objectives. One key social interaction is the behaviour of resource stakeholders in response to the perceived fairness or equity of a given conservation and management scheme. This study uses the conceptual framework used by Campbell and Hanich (2015) to develop an equitable allocation framework for the Maldives skipjack tuna fishery using socio-economic indicators.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3550316
Governing the salmon farming industry: Comparison between national regulations and the ASC salmon standard
Ola KJ Luthman1; Malin Jonell2; Max Troell3; firstname.lastname@example.org
1Sodertorn University, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics & Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm, Sweden;
This paper is under review with Marine Policy.
Farmed salmon has become an important export commodity for many countries and regions. The expanding salmon aquaculture industry has, due to its rapid increase, resulted in environmental concerns, most notably relating to the interaction with wildlife, effects of effluents and discharges in local ecosystems, in some regions overuse of antibiotics and development of AMR and high dependence on fish resources in feeds. As a response to these concerns, the industry has strengthened their efforts to improve practices and private led sustainability initiatives, including certification and eco-labelling, has become increasingly important. This study examines the differences between salmon farming governance policies in the four largest salmon producing regions; Norway, Chile, Scotland (UK) and British Columbia (Canada) and the Aquaculture Stewardship Councils (ASC) salmon standard. The purpose of the study is to clarify how the standard from a well-established eco-certification program compares to national or regional conventional standards, using additionality as measuring method. The paper concludes that at present the ASC standard has mainly three strong advantages over existing regional/national standards and these relate to; escape numbers allowed, antibiotic usage and fish resources in feed. Changing these three main divergences in the national/regional regulations would significantly improve some of the main sustainability issues with uncertified salmon farming. The study also finds that the potential additionality of the ASC standard can differ between regions, with the highest difference in Chile and lowest in Norway.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3843632
Investigating the certifiability of MSC certification for Nunatsiavut’s communal fisheries
Justin Schaible1; Megan Bailey1; Justin@Schaible@dal.ca
Marine Affairs Program, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada;
This research project will investigate the potential for MSC certification to promote economic development in the commercial fisheries operated by Labrador Inuit in Nunatsiavut, NL, Canada. Currently, there are four fisheries that are co-managed between the Inuit of Nunatsiavut, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), and the Provincial Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Each year, the Nunatsiavut Government is allocated a proportion of the total allowable catch for northern shrimp, snow crab, turbot, and Arctic char by DFO, which is distributed to beneficiaries within Nunatsiavuts five communities. The fisheries sector is one of the regions largest employers, supporting around 180 fishers and 220 processors throughout Nunatsiavut (representing 17% of the regions population). However, the sector is struggling to remain economically viable and competitive. One potential way to improve the economic viability is through market differentiation and MSC certification. The focus of this research project will on be assessing the certifiability of fisheries in Nunatsiavut, and what economic benefits certification might bring to the fisheries. Each fishery will be compared against the MSC standard using the OSMI Rapid Assessment Tool. Designed to be similar to, but faster than, an MSC pre-assessment, this methodology will be used to identify data or performance deficiencies in fisheries sustainability based on health of the target stock, impacts on the environment, and the management systems (including Inuit co-management). With the results from the rapid assessment in mind, a return on investment analysis will be conducted to compare the economic benefits from having an MSC certified fishery against the potential costs of certification and preparation for certification. This will help contribute to decisions about pursuing MSC certification for Labrador Inuit.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3843633
Seal of approval: A case study for the possibilities and applications of using genetic testing for traceability in cod and seal value chains
Sara Vanderkaden1; email@example.com
1Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada;
Seafood traceability, or the structured flow of information in seafood value chains, is increasingly being called upon as a tool to combat illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing as well as seafood fraud. To date, seafood traceability has not considered the use of genetics in any substantial way. Where it has, this has been to verify that the species of fish being sold is the same as the species of fish being labelled (interspecific). With an increasing demand for sustainably certified seafood, a more innovative question, which will support increasingly localized management approaches, is the extent to which genetic testing could be used to discern intraspecific variation that is, to identify fish from subpopulations of the same species. For North Atlantic cod, for instance, such differentiation may help to provide consumers with tools and trust in certification claims that cod being sold as Marine Stewardship Certified (cod from 3Ps) is in fact from that NAFO Division and not from 2J3KL, a stock still recovering from the 1992 cod moratorium. In seal value chains, where controversy surrounds the commercial hunt in Newfoundland, genetic differentiation may also satisfy traceability requirements for harp seal products entering the European Union under the Inuit exemption from the 2009 seal ban. This research will investigate the cutting edge of genetics in relation to traceability and eco-certification through two case studies of cod and seal value chains. With innovative genetic methods permitting greater genetic population resolution, the ability to detect intraspecific genetic variation may have novel applications in eco-certification standards, as well as broader benefits in seafood traceability.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3551325
Short-term revenue gains versus long-term socio-economic impacts from licensing of foreign fishing fleet in Somali waters
Abdirahim I. Sheik Heile1; Sarah GLASER2; firstname.lastname@example.org
1Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Mogadishu, Benadir, Somalia; 2One Earth Future, Secure Fisheries program, Broomfield, Colorado, USA email@example.com;
Somalia has been in the global limelight over links between piracy and illegal foreign fishing in its EEZ. Somali waters have high primary productivity which supports abundant tuna stocks. This resource can promote Somalias future if sustainably exploited for long-term socio-economic benefits. The fisheries and living marine resources in Somali waters have drawn the attention of distant water fishing fleets and regional fisheries management organizations. However, the recent shift to a federal administrative structure has made managing the countrys fisheries challenging. After many years of divergences between the federal government and federal member states on how to share licensing revenue from offshore fisheries, an interim agreement is now in place and 31 Chinese vessels have acquired licenses. Thus, in the near term, it is expected that a significant number of foreign fishing vessels will seek to acquire licenses to harvest tuna and other highly migratory fishes in the waters around Somalia.
Here, we analyse the short-term revenue from licensing foreign fishing vessels versus the potential long-term socio-economic costs. In the short run, Somalia will receive license revenue each year from foreign vessels. However, Somalia currently lacks the infrastructure needed to optimize foreign fishing: the ports, roads, and cold chain infrastructure are not sufficient to support landing or processing foreign-caught fish in Somalia. As a result, Somalia does not capitalize on the revenue that could be gained from value-add processing. Additionally, the presence of foreign fishing vessels may constrain the competitiveness of domestic fleets. Somali artisanal fishing vessels do capture tuna, but most fishing is relatively close to shore.
In this study, we measure the potential for short-term revenue from licenses based on estimates of catch of highly-prized commercial fishes and the interest of distant water fishing fleets. We then analyse the potential for that same catch to eventually be captured by the domestic fleet and estimate the total economic contribution to the Somali economy under scenarios of increased domestic fishing and reduced foreign licensing. Finally, we assess the social benefits of developing the commercial tuna sector, and the multiplier effects, in Somalia in light of investment and infrastructure challenges.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3586386
The path to profitability: Financial development of the Icelandic fishing industry under ITQ management
Stefan Gunnlaugsson1; firstname.lastname@example.org
1University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland;
This study describes the financial development of the Icelandic fishing industry since the introduction of ITQ system in 1990. The Icelandic fishing industry has had to deal with reduced total catch for the past three decades. It has adapted well to the reduction and the Icelandic ITQ system has made this easier. The industry has adapted by reducing employment, closing factories and scrapping boats. Specialization has as well increased and the focus is more toward high-value markets. The profitability of the Icelandic fishing industry has markedly increased. This is especially true for the processing aspect of the industry where profits have soared. One of the main reasons for this increase is the ITQ management system. The rise in profitability of the fishing component, however, is considerably less than that of the processing part. This is the result of higher oil prices and the introduction of the fishing fee, and its subsequent increase, which is now a considerable expense for the fishing component of the Icelandic fishing industry. The debt levels of the industry reached a peak in 2008 after a massive escalation which began in 2004 and was mainly caused by the Icelandic financial bubble, 2004-2008, although the ITQ system also played a role here. Since 2008, the financial health of the industry has improved enormously. Currently, the financial situation of the Icelandic fishing industry is, on the average, sound; this particularly applies to the largest and smallest firms.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3548597
The use of probiotics in shrimp larvae production: A sustainable analysis
Daniel Peñalosa-Martinell1; Germán Ponce Díaz1; Marcelo E. Araneda Padilla2; Francisco Javier Vergara-Solana3; email@example.com
1CICIMAR, La Paz, BCS, Mexico; 2Benchmark Genetics, Chaicas, Puerto Mont, Chile; 3IPN CICIMAR, La Paz, México;
One of the technologic advances that has enabled current production levels of shrimp is the controlled procurement of larvae. Currently, shrimp larvae production has a highly competitive market; this makes the application and optimization of technologies that maximize economic benefits a necessity. The use of probiotics in shrimp larvae production has diverse proven benefits, mainly an increase in water quality and larvae survival, causing some changes in management, like the reduction of water exchange, heating and aeration. These processes, as probiotics production itself, are associated to the economic and environmental performance of larvae production. Even though this technology has been widely used, there is limited information about its economic and socio-environmental impact. A static bioeconomic model that considers the relationship that exists between the use of probiotics, larvae mortality, energy consumption and emission of pollutants was developed. For its parametrization, data of 15 production cycles carried out throughout two years in a larvae production laboratory located in BCS, Mexico was gathered. This information was completed with staff interviews and parameters obtained from the literature. The use of probiotics has a significant effect in the reduction of pollutants. The emissions of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and CO2 were estimated to be reduced by 1410%, 105% and 479% respectively when using the technology. A reduction of 1.04 USDm3-1cycle-1 in energy costs was also estimated. Probiotics production and application costs were estimated to be 199.48 20.43 USDm3-1 cycle-1. Overall, the optimum use of probiotics increases economic benefits up to 79% and a dose between 7.92x109 and 11.6x109 CFUm3-1day-1 is recommended. Due to the reduction observed in CO2, an analysis of current Mexican policies that have an impact on emissions, mainly a tax embedded in the price of Diesel that applies to the general population, and the existence of subsidies directed to aquaculture production and applied to energy consumption, was developed. Current policies have opposing objectives, with a negative balance for society. The application of subsidies would have a higher socio-environmental benefit when applied to promote the use of CO2 reducing technologies, like probiotics or clean energy generators.
17:00 – 19:00 | 3762246
Tuna trade-offs: Balancing profit and social benefits in one of the world's largest fisheries
Ciara Willis1; Megan Bailey1; firstname.lastname@example.org
1Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada;
The western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) tuna fishery is one of the worlds largest fisheries in terms of both catch volume and value, providing over half of global tuna catch with a landed value of US $5.84 billion in 2017. Fishing is conducted by both large- and small-scale fleets, with fisheries subsidies disproportionately benefiting the former. The primary objective of this study was to determine the optimal distribution of effort between two large-scale fisheries and two small-scale fisheries in the WCPO under three scenarios: to maximize industry profit, social profit, or food supply. The objective was approached using a bioeconomic game theoretic model. This work has implications for the objectives we set in fisheries management, and the potential trade-offs that we must make explicit in that management.